International Anti-Nuclear Movement
The international anti-nuclear movement draws attention to the hazards of radioactive emissions, incidents, the processing, interim storage and long-term storage of radioactive material and nuclear waste. The movement also demands an end to the civil use of nuclear power. Already in 1958, in the USA there was a successive initiative to stop the nuclear project in Bodega Bay, north of San Francisco. In Germany, the anti-nuclear movement, which in the beginning was run by citizens’ groups of farmers, vintners, and students with an outstanding proportion of women activists, has campaigned since the 1970s. One of their successes was the protest action in Wyhl in 1975, where the construction of the planned reactor was thwarted peacefully by judicial means and by passive resistance (occupation of the construction site). During large-scale demonstrations in the following years, such as 1976 in Brokdorf, there were violent clashes between the police and militant anti-nuclear activists. Afterwards, the activists often used the tactic of the sit-in. High points of the struggle against nuclear power were in the late 1970s, and after the disasters of the reactors in Chernobyl on April 26, 1986, and Fukushima on March 11, 2011.
The typical organizational structure of the numerous local action groups is the network. The constancy and the success of the German anti-nuclear movement is due particularly to the interaction between civil protest, media, politics, governance, the law, and science.