directory - Democracy

England Riots

The 2011 England Riots were a quite radical uprising of underprivileged English youth between 6 and 10 August. In England, such riots are a not uncommon form of violent protest that goes back at least to the 1980s. The rioters are mostly boys and young men, whose socioeconomic situation and outlook is very poor. The 2011 riots began in Tottenham, a deprived area in north London with a multicultural population and a high crime rate, after 29-year-old Mark Duggan was shot by police during a regular stop-and-search under much-debated circumstances. The fact that a black male had died as a result of police intervention was handled by the authorities with a very questionable and inappropriate communication policy, which attracted much media attention.

Colectivo Etcétera

Etcétera... Needs no definition... Just imagine what comes after... Etcétera... is the word that shatters language. Etcétera... closes and opens all speech. Etcétera... is in every language. As such, it’s an ally anywhere in the world. Etcétera... is the present. Its members are without number. Etcétera... is singular and plural, feminine and masculine. Etcétera... adds, subtracts, divides, and multiplies.

Carnation Revolution

The Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos Cravos or Revolução de 25 de Abril) describes the peaceful overthrow of the authoritarian dictatorship of the Estado Novo (New State) under António de Oliveira Salazar in Portugal on April 25, 1974. On the late evening of April 24, 1974, Portuguese radio had broadcast the song Depois Do Adeus (And After the Farewell) by Paulo de Carvalho, which was the signal to begin the revolution against the fascist regime of Caetano.


Campact organizes campaigns in which people participate in social debates via the Internet. The Campact Newsletter, our main instrument, already connects over 900,000 politically active people. Our goal is to inspire people to actively engage in and shape politics outside of elections. With our campaigns we want to induce politicians to react to what their citizens want. This makes our democracy as a whole stronger. We stand for increased democratic participation of each individual, we demand the introduction of national referendums, and we fight for more transparency, for example, full disclosure of politicians’ outside earnings. Further, we campaign for effective climate policies based on renewable energy, and oppose nuclear power.


ATSA is a non-profit organization founded in 1998 by the artists Pierre Allard and Annie Roy. The couple creates transdisciplinary works and events for the public realm that take the form of interventions, installations, performance art, and realistic stagings. Their actions are born of a desire to raise public awareness of various social, environmental, and heritage issues that are crucial and need to be addressed. To sway both the public and the media – in short, to motivate as many citizens as possible to take an active role in improving society – ATSA marshals artistic quality, a playful, imaginative outlook, impactful media exposure, and key messages backed by sound and thorough research.

Ashkal Alwan

An important role in the development of timely contemporary art in the Lebanon is played by the Ashkal Alwan association, founded in 1994 by Christine Tohmé, which began with artistic interventions in public spaces, and since 2002 organizes the interdisciplinary festival “Home Works.” The focus is more on lectures and discussions, performances (including theatre and concerts), films and videos, than exhibitions. The boundaries between categories remain fluid; in the beginning, this was also due to the scant resources, intermediate forms were created, such as speech performances by, for example, Rabih Mroué or Walid Raad.

Arab Spring

The phenomenon known in German-speaking countries as the “Arab Spring,” and in Anglophone countries also as “Arabellion,” refers to the period of mass uprisings, demonstrations, and revolutions, which began in 2010 in the Arab countries of the Middle East and the Maghreb. These national uprisings, which received much media attention, were primarily directed against the existing autocratic and dictatorial regimes and frequently resulted in violent riots.